An Ode To Write A Research Proposal

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Statistical cards represent a type of graphics of the statistical data on the schematic card characterizing the level or degree of a of this or that phenomenon in a certain territory.

Expressiveness, clarity, laconicism,, visibility of graphics made them in research work and in the international comparisons and comparisons of social and economic.

The last element of the schedule - an explication. Each schedule has to have the verbal description of its contents. It in itself the name of the schedule which in a short form retells its matter; signatures along large-scale scales and the explanation to separate parts of the schedule.

In statistical practice images with uniform scales are most often applied. On abscissa axis they undertake in proportion to number of the periods of time, and on an axis ­ - in proportion to levels. Length of the piece taken for unit will be the scale of a scale.

If scale for a scale on abscissa axis is very stretched in comparison with scale on ordinate axis, fluctuations in a of the phenomena are a little allocated and vice versa, exaggeration of scale on ordinate axis in comparison with scale on abscissa axis gives sharp fluctuations. To the equal periods of time and the sizes of level there have to correspond equal pieces of a scale.

productions of meat it falls on April, May, then its slow increase by August, sharp rise in a, October and again recession in December, January. If in a base for counting to take not the center of a circle, but a circle, are called spiral.

Graphic and numerical intervals happen equal and. If throughout a scale correspond to equal graphic equal numerical, such scale by the uniform. When to equal numerical intervals unequal graphic intervals and vice versa, the scale is called uneven.

It is necessary to find logarithms of initial numbers, to draw an and to divide it into some equal parts. Then will apply on ordinate (or the parallel line equal to it) pieces, to pure gains of these logarithms. Further to write down the corresponding logarithms of numbers and their, for example (0,000; 0,3010; 0,4771; 0,6021;...; 1,000 that gives 1, 2, 3, 4..., the Received antilogarithms finally give a type of a required scale on ordinate.

At creation of stylar charts it is necessary to draw system of rectangular coordinates in which settle down. On a horizontal axis the bases of columns settle down, the size of the basis is defined randomly, but identical to all.

Kinds of stylar charts make so tape or strip charts. Their difference that the large-scale scale is located across from above or from below and it determines the size of strips by length.

Background cartograms are, as a rule, used for an of average or relative values, dot - for volume (quantitative) indicators (population, a cattle livestock etc.).

Cartogram background - a type of a cartogram on which various density or coloring of a certain degree of a show intensity of any indicator within territorial unit.

At creation of a graphic representation it is necessary to observe a number of requirements. First of all the schedule has to be rather evident as all sense of a graphic representation as the of the analysis in that and consists visually to represent indicators. Besides, the schedule has to be, intelligible and clear. For implementation of requirements each schedule has to include a number of wasps-kovnykh of elements: graphic image; schedule field;